99Es Einsteinium

Year Discovered


Discovered By

Albert Ghiorso, Bernard Harvey, Gregory Choppen and Stanley Thompson of the USA

Biological Rating

Not necessary for life.


Named after Albert Einstein, einsteinium is a highly radioactive metal. It was discovered in the radioactive fallout of a 1952 atomic bomb test. It has never been found naturally and less than a gram is produced each year. Its chemistry and appearance are not known with any certainty but should be similar to the other actinides. Einsteinium is too rare to have any commercial or industrial application. The most stable isotope of einsteinium has a half-life of 1.3 years.

Biological Benefits

Einsteinium has no biological use.

Role in Life Processes

No known benefits for life processes in plants and animals.


Einsteinium is obtained by particle bombardment of plutonium.