111Rg Roentgenium

Year Discovered


Discovered By

S. Hoffmann, V. Ninov, F. Hessberger, P. Armbruster and G. Munzenberg and others of Germany

Biological Rating

Not necessary for life.


Roentgenium is a highly radioactive metal. It has never been found naturally and only a few atoms have been produced in laboratories. Its chemistry and appearance are not known with any certainty, although the chemistry is believed to be similar to gold. Roentgenium is too rare to have any commercial or industrial application. The most stable isotope of Roentgenium has a half-life of a fraction of a thousandth of a second.

Biological Benefits

Roentgenium has no biological use.

Role in Life Processes

No known benefits for life processes in plants and animals.


Roentgenium is obtained by the fusion process of bombarding bismuth with nickel.