Flambeau Copper-Gold Mine

Flambeau Copper-Gold Mine, Ladysmith, WI

The 181-acre mining site located about one mile south of Ladysmith, Wisconsin, is bounded on the east by State Highway 27 and on the west by the Flambeau River. The Flambeau deposit existed at very shallow depth. Depth to bedrock at the mining site ranged from about 15-40 feet. Mining of this shallow ore body was accomplished through a 32-acre open pit. The pit trended in a northeast-southwest direction and was 2,600 feet long, about 550 feet in width, and reached an ultimate depth of about 220 feet. Over the course of the mining operation, about 1.9 million tons of ore containing about 8.9% copper and 0.10 ounces of gold per ton were mined and shipped from the site. The mine, that began operation in 1991, produced about 178,000 tons of marketable copper and 328,000 ounces of gold. The approved Reclamation Plan for the Flambeau Project specified that the open pit, upon completion of mining, would be completely backfilled with original rock material that was separated from the ore. Reclamation of the pit began in early 1997 and was completed in late 1998.

Philmont Scout Ranch

Philmont Scout Ranch, Cimmaron, New Mexico

The history of mining at Philmont dates back to the years immediately after the Civil War. U.S. soldiers were stationed in the West after the war and found gold at what is now the Philmont Scout Ranch in Cimmaron, New Mexico. Scores of gold mines were excavated in Philmont, and operated into the early 20th century. The Contention Mine, located at Cyphers Mine, and the Aztec Mine, located at French Henry, are open to guided tours.

Old Works Golf Course

Old Works Golf Course. Anaconda, Montana had been the home of a copper-smelting facility operated by Anaconda Mining Co. since 1884. Atlantic Richfield Co. purchased Anaconda Mining in 1977 and subsequently closed the smelting plant. The EPA determined the location to be a Superfund site. Working with members of the local community, ARCO settled on a plan that eventually resulted in Old Works Golf Course, which opened in 1997. The plan included extensive measures to minimize the threat of water contamination–a factor in all developments but especially critical in reclamation projects. At Old Works, waste material (crushed rock with high copper and zinc content) was consolidated, the course contoured and, finally, capped with a layer of limestone and 16 inches of soil. An extensive drainage system prevents excess water from leaching through the metal-laden material. To ensure the site is functioning as planned, water quality is monitored continually. Recognizing the historic appeal of the mining operation, Jack Nicklaus in 1994 incorporated many old relics into the course’s layout; the bunkers hold not white sand, but slag–a dark-colored byproduct of the smelting process–giving the course a unique look.